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대한민국 원환율 (2021-08-27)
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Obesity and Obstetrics-2판
Obesity and Obstetrics-2판
       판매가 : 260,000234,000
       적립금 : 4,680
       저   자 : Mahmood
       역   자 :
       출판사 : Elsevier
    ISBN(13) : 9780128179215
       발행일 : 2020-06-06  /   2판   /   372 페이지
       상품코드 : 27800
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1 Epidemiology

1 Worldwide epidemic of obesity
Introduction
Definitions of overweight and obesity
The extent of the problem
Obesity in children and adolescents
Temporal trends
Factors associated with overweight and obesity
Disease burden and impact on health and economy
International response to the epidemic
Conclusion
References

2 Social, ethnic, and environmental determinants of obesity
Introduction
Trends in obesity
Health impact and burden of overweight and obesity
Factors that contribute to disparities in obesity
Sleep deprivation
Employment pattern
Food environments
Socioeconomic status
Screen time
Sedentary behavior
Social networks
Social capital
Access to physical education
Transportation
Exposure to obesogens
Racism and discrimination
Access to health care
Neighborhood segregation
Unsafe neighborhoods
Conclusion
References

3 Obesity based on genetic and molecular influences
Introduction
Genetic factors
Molecular basis for energy intake regulation
Leptin regulatory pathways
Orexigenic regulation
Control of energy expenditure and adipogenesis
Thermogenesis
Adipogenesis
Metabolic programming
Conclusion
References

4 The psychological basis of obesity
General introduction
Eating behavior
Cognition
Stigma and discrimination
Stress and mood disorders
Personality traits
Emotion regulation
Summary
Acknowledgments
References


2 Planning for Pregnancy in Obese Women
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5 Preconception and antepartum care in overweight and obese women
Introduction
Epidemiology of obesity and overweight in pregnancy or reproductive age women
Impact of overweight/obesity on female and male (plus age) on fertility
Morbidity and mortality of overweight/obesity in pregnancy
Preconception care of overweight/obesity
Early pregnancy in overweight and obese women
Recommended and optimal weight gain in pregnancy
Lifestyle and nutrition recommendations for pregnant obese women
Antepartum care of overweight and obese women
Obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus
Obesity and hypertension
Obesity, preterm birth, and neonatal mortality
Intrapartum care and prevention of postpartum risks in obese patients
Managing weight postpartum
Conclusion
References

6 Management of pregnancy in women with history of weight loss surgery
Obesity and bariatric surgery
Types of bariatric surgery
Restrictive procedures
Malabsorptive procedures
Complications of bariatric surgery
Reproductive health after bariatric surgery
Preconception counseling
General advice
Effects of pregnancy on surgery
Effects of surgery on pregnancy
Antenatal management
Recommended investigations in pregnancy after bariatric surgery
Nutrition and treatment of possible deficiencies
Protein
Folic acid
Vitamin B12
Vitamin A
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Iron
Calcium and vitamin D
Management of acute attendance during pregnancy
Postpartum management
References

7 Ultrasound scanning in early pregnancy and fetal abnormality screening in obese women
Key points for clinical practice
Introduction
Excess fetal risks associated with obesity
Congenital anomalies
Stillbirths
Intrauterine fetal growth restriction
Macrosomia
Ultrasound assessment in obesity
First-trimester ultrasound
Second-trimester ultrasound
Fetal growth assessment
Technical tips for ultrasound in obese women
Financial issues
Medicolegal litigations
Interventions
Metformin
Diet and physical activity
Conclusion
References

8 Challenges of third-trimester screening in obese women
Selecting optimal site for measurements
Estimation of Foetal birth weight
Accuracy of Foetal weight estimation near term
Limitation of ultrasound estimation of weight
Optimal timing for sonographic assessment
Assessment of amniotic fluid volume
Summary
References

9 An overview of complications associated with obesity during pregnancy
Introduction
Pathophysiological changes among obese women during pregnancy
Obesity in pregnancy
Miscarriage
Gestational diabetes
Preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension
Maternal venous thromboembolism
Congenital abnormalities and obesity
Macrosomia and obesity
Obesity and risk of preterm rupture of membranes
Stillbirth and obesity
Obesity and induction of labor
Place of birth
Obesity and mode of delivery
Obesity and obstetrics anesthetics
Postpartum complications
Postpartum hemorrhage
Breastfeeding
Postnatal depression
Perinatal outcome
Conclusion
Conflict of interest
References

10 Obesity and adolescent pregnancy
Introduction
Adolescent pregnancy
Global and temporal trends
Factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy
Adolescent pregnancy associated with several consequences
Health consequences
During pregnancy
During labor and childbirth
After childbirth
Neonatal outcomes
Social consequences
Adolescent Obesity
Etiology
Complications of obesity
General complications
Obstetric complications
Pregnancy in obese adolescents
Interventions
References

11 Algorithmic approach to antenatal care for women with obesity
Review of guidelines for antepartum care
Guidelines on weight gain in pregnancy
Guidelines on nutritional supplementation
Guidelines on screening for maternal disease in pregnancy
Guidelines on fetal assessment
Prepregnancy care and recommendations
Antenatal care
Weight and body mass index assessment and gestational weight gain
Screening for maternal disease during pregnancy
Cardiac disease
Respiratory disease
Diabetes in pregnancy
Hypertensive disease
Antenatal fetal screening—special considerations
Planning for labor and birth
Intrapartum care and anesthetic considerations
Summary
References

12 Antenatal care for postbariatric women
Key points
Is there an optimal time to conceive a pregnancy after bariatric surgery?
Nutritional considerations
Protein
Iron
Anemia
Folic acid
Vitamin B12
Calcium
Vitamin D
Vitamin A
Other nutritional deficiencies
Gestational weight gain
Gestational diabetes: risk, screening, and management
Screening for gestational diabetes
Management of gestational diabetes
Nonobstetric complications in the postbariatric gravida
Abdominal pain
Small bowel obstruction and internal herniation
Anastomotic leak
Marginal ulcer
Band complications
Other causes of abdominal pain
Dumping syndrome
Early dumping syndrome
Late dumping syndrome
Management of dumping syndrome during pregnancy
Pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery
Large for gestational age
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
Cesarean delivery
Preterm delivery
Fetal growth restriction
Labor and delivery
Breastfeeding
References

13 Obesity, hypertension, and preeclampsia
Introduction
Definitions
Blood pressure measurement
Urine testing
Changing incidence of obesity
Does obesity predispose to preeclampsia?
Potential mechanisms
Adipokines
Is “preeclampsia” in the obese really underlying chronic (essential) hypertension?
Final considerations
References

14 Obesity and venous thromboembolism and management plan
Introduction
Epidemiology, prevalence, and trends
Obesity, pregnancy, and venous thromboembolism risk: underlying mechanisms
Prevention of venous thromboembolism in obese women during pregnancy
Identification of risk factors and risk assessment
Care of individuals identified as at higher risk of venous thromboembolism
Agents for thromboprophylaxis
Recommendations for thromboprophylaxis use in obese pregnant women
Peripartum thromboprophylaxis
Postpartum thromboprophylaxis
Investigation of suspected venous thromboembolism in obese pregnant women
Summary
References


3 Obesity and Hyperglycaemia of Pregnancy

15 Pregnancy and metabolic syndrome of obesity
Introduction
Lipid metabolism and fat deposition in lean pregnancy
Lipid metabolism and fat deposition in obese women
Glucose metabolism in lean and obese pregnancy
Adiposity, obesity and insulin resistance: potential mechanisms
Adiposity and pregnancy-specific insulin resistance: potential mechanisms
Adiposity, obesity and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity: potential mechanisms
Amino acid metabolism in lean and obese pregnancy
Preeclampsia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome of pregnancy
Intervention strategies in maternal obesity and effects on metabolism
Intervention strategies: lifestyle
Intervention strategies: pharmacological
Conclusion
References

16 Maternal obesity and developmental priming of risk of later disease
Introduction
Epidemiological observations on maternal obesity, macrosomia, and neonatal adiposity
Maternal obesity and childhood obesity
Maternal pregnancy weight gain and childhood obesity
Maternal diabetes, gestational diabetes, and glucose effects
Relationship between maternal hyperglycemia and neonatal adiposity
Maternal hyperglycemia and childhood obesity
GDM and cardiometabolic diseases in the offspring
Maternal insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and fetal growth
Glucose metabolism and fetal growth
Maternal lipid supply and fetal growth
Amino acid metabolism and insights from metabolomics studies
Effects on vascular function
Animal models using maternal obesity
Neurohormonal changes
Intestinal inflammation and gut microbiota
Placenta, fetal programming, and fetal development
Epigenetics as the unifying mechanism in fetal priming of noncommunicable disease risk
Implications for public health intervention
Acknowledgments
References

17 Universal testing for hyperglycemia in pregnancy
Rising burden of disability and hyperglycemia in pregnancy
Short- and long-term consequence of hyperglycemia in pregnancy
Should all pregnant women be tested for hyperglycemia in pregnancy?
Should all women be subjected to a 75g oral glucose tolerance test?
Is global consensus on diagnostic cutoff values possible?
References

18 Metformin use in gestational diabetes
Introduction
Efficacy of metformin in gestational diabetes
Safety of metformin in gestational diabetes
Clinical practice guidelines for metformin and gestational diabetes
Metformin in overweight and obese pregnant women
Metformin therapy after gestational diabetes
Metformin in the future
Metformin and the placenta
Metformin and in utero fetal metabolism
Metformin and long-term motor–social development
Acknowledgments
References

19 Management of gestational diabetes mellitus to optimize outcomes
Adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with gestational diabetes
Macrosomia
Stillbirth
Adverse neonatal outcomes
Long-term morbidity
Gestational diabetes mellitus treatment
Rationale
Glycemic targets and monitoring
Glycemic goals
Glucose monitoring
Diet and lifestyle
The food plan
Daily caloric intake
Physical activity
Pharmacologic therapy—Oral
Oral antidiabetic agents
Glyburide
Metformin
Insulin treatment
Insulin analogs
Intermediate-acting insulin
Short-acting human insulin
Rapid-acting insulin analogs: lispro and aspart
Choice of pharmacologic therapy
New technologies
Obstetric considerations and monitoring
Surveillance of fetal well-being and growth
Timing of delivery
Mode of delivery
Glycemic control during labor
Postpartum care
References

20 Obesity, insulin resistance, and placental dysfunction—fetal growth
Introduction
Obesity and the endocrine environment
Placenta and insulin resistance
Placental size
Placental transporter system
Placenta and inflammatory response
Prothrombotic state
Diabetes and the placenta
The intrauterine growth–restricted fetus
Conclusion
References


4 Management of Labour

21 Induction of labor in obese women
Background
Indications for induction of labor
Postterm pregnancy
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
Diabetes
Suspected fetal macrosomia
Stillbirth and term elective induction of labor
Alternative indications for induction of labor
Women with a previous caesarean section
Assessment prior to induction of labor
Methods of inducing labor
Fetal well-being
Summary
References

22 Intrapartum care for obese and morbidly obese women
Introduction
Preterm and postterm pregnancy
Induction of labour
Place of delivery
Equipment required
Labour and intrapartum monitoring
Labour dystocia
Second-stage progress
Caesarean section in the obese woman
Macrosomia and shoulder dystocia
Postpartum care
Perinatal morbidity
Risks in subsequent pregnancy
Conclusion
References

23 Anesthetic issues during labor in obese women
IntroductionPhysiology of Obesity and Pregnancy
The cardiovascular system
The respiratory system
Airway
Oxygenation
The gastrointestinal system
The endocrine system
Anesthetic considerations
Equipment
Personnel
Drugs
The anesthetic clinic
The labor ward
Airway assessment
Intravenous access
Entonox and opioids
Regional analgesia
The operating theater
Elective cases
Urgent cases
Emergency cases
The postoperative period
Conclusion
References

24 Obesity, diabetes, placental pathology, and fetal malformations
Introduction
Obesity, diabetes, and the umbilical cord coiling
Obesity, diabetes, and the placenta
Obesity and other placental changes
Obesity, diabetes, and fetal pathology
Obesity, diabetes, and disease in childhood
Conclusion
References

25 Maternal obesity and the risk of stillbirth
Background
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Direct risk factors
Gestational diabetes
Hypertensive disorders
Vascular pathology and placental dysfunction
Metabolic syndrome
Previous obstetric history
Fetal abnormalities
Sleep disorders
Failed antenatal screening
Postmaturity
Indirect risk factors
Age
Parity
Social class and dietary habits
Ethnicity
Obesity as an independent risk factor
Management
Prevention
Public health implication
References

26 Cesarean delivery technique in obese women
Key points
Preoperative preparation
Intraoperative technique
Delivery of the baby and delayed umbilical cord clamping
Prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage and placental delivery
Closure of the uterus and abdomen
Postcesarean delivery care
References
Further reading

27 Sepsis in obese pregnant women
Introduction
Epidemiology of obesity and sepsis
Immunology
Specific infections
Genital tract
Breast
Surgical site infections
Hospital-acquired infections
Urinary tract
Cough/shortness of breath
Sore throat
Rare infections
Viral infections
Influenza pandemics
Sepsis
Comorbidities
Intrapartum care
Operative issues
Cesarean sections
Preoperative considerations
Antibiotic prophylaxis
Incision
Specialized retractors
Closure
Postoperative care
Care in wound dehiscence
Summary
Practice points
Research agenda
Conflict of interest
References

28 Multimodal framework for reducing obesity-related maternal morbidity and mortality
Introduction
Obesity in women of reproductive age
Obesity-related maternal mortality
Obesity-related maternal morbidity
The concept of a multimodal framework
Primary prevention of obesity-related maternal mortality and morbidity
Secondary prevention of obesity-related maternal mortality and morbidity
Dedicated clinic
The booking visit and follow-up arrangements
Anesthetic consultation
Facilities
Staff
Weight control in pregnancy
Intrapartum care
Cesarean section
Thromboembolism prophylaxis
Breastfeeding
Postnatal care
Tertiary prevention of obesity-related maternal mortality and morbidity
Dealing with comorbidities
Vaginal birth after cesarean section
Pregnancy after bariatric surgery
Conclusion
References


5 Interventions to Improve Care of Women During Pregnancy

29 Eating behavior and lifestyle issues in women—implications for obesity development and preventi
Introduction
Current diet and lifestyle issues
Sociocultural influences on eating and lifestyle behaviors
Individual-level influences
Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References

30 Antiobesity drugs for obese women planning pregnancy
Introduction
Classification of antiobesity drugs
Drugs for weight reduction in reproductive age women: pharmacology and clinical efficacy
Orlistat (trade name: Xenical)
Phentermine and diethylpropion
Lorcaserin (trade name: Belviq)
Bupropion/naltrexone (trade names: Contrave and Mysimba)
Liraglutide (trade names: Saxenda and Victoza)
Metformin (trade name: Glucophage)
Pharmacological antiobesity treatment in women contemplating pregnancy
Indications of pharmacological treatment: a review of evidence
Safety data in pregnancy
Timing of intervention
Concluding remarks
References

31 Weight-reducing surgery for women planning pregnancy: where are we now?
Introduction
Background
The pros and cons of bariatric surgery
How does bariatric surgery affect sexuality and sexual function?
Should the desire of fertility be a prime indication for bariatric surgery?
A case of spontaneous conception following weight-reducing surgery
What is the optimum timing for planning a pregnancy after weight-reducing surgery?
Special precautions after weight-reducing surgery
Nutrition
Anemia
Gastrointestinal symptoms
Monitoring of fetal growth
Pregnancy outcomes after weight-reducing surgery
Continued need to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertension after weight-reducing su
Postpartum considerations
Future work
Conclusion
References

32 Developing standards of care for obese women during pregnancy
Introduction
The development of standard of care
How to develop standards?
The obesity epidemic
Prepregnancy care
Interventions for the management of obesity before and during pregnancy
Antenatal care
Antenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies
Metabolic disorders of pregnancy
Antenatal fetal surveillance
Intrapartum care
Operative and perioperative care
Anesthesia choice
Antibiotics usage
Incision
Postpartum care
Conclusion
References

33 Planning for the future: maternity services in 2035
Projected prevalence of obesity in 2035
Key health burdens of obesity in pregnancy
Direct health burdens
Structural issues
Process issues/intrapartum care
Outcome
Indirect health burdens
Current model of care
Future model of care
Preconceptual care
Weight-loss strategies
Antenatal care
Weight management during pregnancy
Risk management
Previous gastric banding
Intrapartum care
Postnatal care
How can we deliver this care?
Predicted new service delivery model
Health service planning assumptions and inpatient bed requirements
Research needed to inform future planning
Summary
References

34 Maternal obesity and stigma
Introduction to chapter
Stigma
Pregnant women’s experiences of obesity stigma
Before pregnancy
During pregnancy
Obesity stigma and its influence on maternal health
Health-care professionals’ attitudes toward and experiences of caring for pregnant women with obes
Health-care professionals’ attitudes toward pregnant women with obesity
Health-care professionals’ experiences of caring for pregnant women with obesity
Reducing weight stigma within maternity services
Discuss weight sensitively
Provide woman-centered care
Provide continuity of care
Develop services together with women
Implement appropriate guidelines
Provide a supportive clinical setting
Implement appropriate training for health-care professionals and health-care professionals to-be
Summary
References


Index
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